Pathology and Pathophysiology (II)
- Oncology: Cell/Tissue phenotypic changes: metaplasia, dysplasia, anaplasia and precancerous lesions.
- Definition of cancer. Morphological and biochemical features of the neoplastic cell. Histogenetic classification of tumors. Clinical criteria for the classification of tumors: grading and staging. Pathophysiology of replication and of cell differentiation and growth factors. Physical, chemical, viral and hormonal cancerogenesis. Stages of the neoplastic process: initiation, promotion and progression (invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis). Oncogenes and their activation mechanisms. Tumor suppressor genes. Genomic instability. Heredityary tumors. Immunity, inflammation and cancer. Biological basis of target antineoplastic therapy.
- General Pathophysiology: Pathophysiology of metabolism (amino acids, purine and pyrimidine bases, lipids and lipid disorders).
- Pathophysiology of the Endocrine System: classes of hormones and receptors, secretion and transport.
- Pathophysiology of the thyroid gland: epithelial cells and parafollicular C cells, thyroid hormones, transporters iodine and TPO. Pathogenesis of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, papillary thyroid cancer, follicular, medullary and anaplastic (MTC).
- Pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus: endocrine pancreas, definitions and etiological classification: type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, other types of diabetes and gestational diabetes: Pathophysiology of complications of the diabetic patient. The gut hormones: the incretin hormones GLP-1 and GIP. Atherogenesis and atherosclerosis.
- General pathophysiology of blood, blood-forming organs and haemostasis.
- General pathophysiology of major systems: renal, respiratory, hepatic, cardiocirculatory systems; fluid and electrolyte replacement; acid-base balance.
- Pathologic Basis of Disease. Robbins & Cotran. Eight Edition. Editor: W B Saunders Co, 2009
- Understanding pathophysiology. S. Huether, K. McCance. Elsevier, 2012
- Cells, Tissues and Disease. Principles of general pathology. G. Majno, I. Joris. Oxford University Press, 2004.
- Rubin’s Pathology. Clinicopathologic foundation of medicine. Rubin & Straier. Lippincott Raven; 6 Har/Psc, ed. ,