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Degree Course in Medicine and Surgery “F” - International Medical School

Pathology and Pathophysiology (II)

  • Oncology: Cell/Tissue phenotypic changes: metaplasia, dysplasia, anaplasia and precancerous lesions.
  •  Definition of cancer. Morphological and biochemical features of the neoplastic cell. Histogenetic classification of tumors. Clinical criteria for the classification of tumors: grading and staging. Pathophysiology of replication and of cell differentiation and growth factors. Physical, chemical, viral and hormonal cancerogenesis. Stages of the neoplastic process: initiation, promotion and progression (invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis). Oncogenes and their activation mechanisms. Tumor suppressor genes. Genomic instability. Heredityary tumors. Immunity, inflammation and cancer. Biological basis of target antineoplastic therapy. 
  • General Pathophysiology: Pathophysiology of metabolism (amino acids, purine and pyrimidine bases, lipids and lipid disorders). 
  • Pathophysiology of the Endocrine System: classes of hormones and receptors, secretion and transport. 
  • Pathophysiology of the thyroid gland: epithelial cells and parafollicular C cells, thyroid hormones, transporters iodine and TPO. Pathogenesis of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, papillary thyroid cancer, follicular, medullary and anaplastic (MTC).
  •  Pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus: endocrine pancreas, definitions and etiological classification: type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, other types of diabetes and gestational diabetes: Pathophysiology of complications of the diabetic patient. The gut hormones: the incretin hormones GLP-1 and GIP. Atherogenesis and atherosclerosis. 
  • General pathophysiology of blood, blood-forming organs and haemostasis. 
  • General pathophysiology of major systems: renal, respiratory, hepatic, cardiocirculatory systems; fluid and electrolyte replacement; acid-base balance. 
Exam: oral 

Suggested texbooks

  1. Pathologic Basis of Disease. Robbins & Cotran. Eight Edition. Editor: W B Saunders Co, 2009 
  2. Understanding pathophysiology. S. Huether, K. McCance. Elsevier, 2012
  3. Cells, Tissues and Disease. Principles of general pathology. G. Majno, I. Joris. Oxford University Press, 2004. 
  4. Rubin’s Pathology. Clinicopathologic foundation of medicine. Rubin & Straier. Lippincott Raven; 6 Har/Psc, ed. , 2011.

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