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Degree Course in Medicine and Surgery “F” - International Medical School

Slides from the lectures on communication in clinical settings

Counseling for Behavioral Change

Breaking Bad News

Here you can find general information on the courses of the I° semester, 3rd year

Main teaching objectives:

  • Knowledge of the etiology and the pathogenetic mechanisms of human diseases, basic pathophysiological mechanisms of major organs and systems.
  • Interpretation of basic pathophysiological and pathogenetic mechanisms of human disease.
  • Ability to analyze the fundamental pathophysiological mechanisms of human diseases and interpret their results.
  • Knowledge of the pathogenetic basis of disease and pathophysiological processes as the essential substrate for subsequent clinical approach to human diseases.

Pathology and Pathophysiology (I) 

  • Etiology: Main concepts of health, pathologic process and disease; etiology, pathogenesis, evolution, resolution (exitus). General environmental pathology. Pathology by physical and chemical agents. Biological agents of disease: bacterial exotoxins and endotoxins. Non-hereditary congenital disease. Teratogenesis.
  • Genetic disorders: Gene mutation and disease. Genetic inheritance patterns. The major chromosomal and gene disorders. Genetics of multifactorial diseases. Kariotype analysis and methods for genetic diseases. Models of human genetic disorders. 
  • Molecular Pathology: Molecular pathology of proteins. Hemoglobinopathies. Pathology by enzyme deficiencies. Molecular pathology of the plasma membrane: receptors, channels, transduction mechanisms. Molecular pathology of the components of the connective tissue. Molecular pathology of mitochondria.
  • Inflammation: The basics of inflammation, acute and chronic inflammation. Innate immunity and inflammation. Inflammation as a transcriptional program. Inflammatory cells. Chemical mediators of inflammation of cellular and plasma origins. Acute inflammation: the vascular phenomena of inflammation, the mechanisms of formation of exudate, the various types of exudative inflammation. Chronic inflammation: mechanisms of granuloma formation. Foreign-body granulomas. The main immunological granulomas. Systemic manifestations of inflammation: acute phase proteins, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and leukocytosis. Pathophysiology of thermoregulation and fever. Tissue repair and granulation tissue. Pathological aspects of wound healing: keloids, scars.
  • Pathology of cell structures: the cell's response to injury: cellular stress, cellular adaptations (hypertrophy, hyperplasia, atrophy, metaplasia), intracellular storage diseases (steatosis, lysosomal diseases). Molecular mechanisms of cellular damage. Cell death: necrosis and apoptosis. Renewal, regeneration and tissue repair. Growth factors. Aging.
  • Abnormalities of the extracellular matrix: Beta-fibrillosis. Localized and systemic fibrosis. The diseases of collagen and other basement membrane components.

Exam: oral 

Suggested texbooks

  1. Pathologic Basis of Disease. Robbins & Cotran. Eight Edition. Editor: W B Saunders Co, 2009 
  2. Understanding pathophysiology. S. Huether, K. McCance. Elsevier, 2012
  3. Cells, Tissues and Disease. Principles of general pathology. G. Majno, I. Joris. Oxford University Press, 2004. 
  4. Rubin’s Pathology. Clinicopathologic foundation of medicine. Rubin & Straier. Lippincott Raven; 6 Har/Psc, ed. , 2011.