Here you can find general information on the courses of the I° semester, 3rd year
- Docente: Gabriella Palmieri
Main teaching objectives:
- Knowledge of the etiology and the pathogenetic mechanisms of human diseases, basic pathophysiological mechanisms of major organs and systems.
- Interpretation of basic pathophysiological and pathogenetic mechanisms of human disease.
- Ability to analyze the fundamental pathophysiological mechanisms of human diseases and interpret their results.
- Knowledge of the pathogenetic basis of disease and pathophysiological processes as the essential substrate for subsequent clinical approach to human diseases.
Pathology and Pathophysiology (I)
- Etiology: Main concepts of health, pathologic process and disease; etiology, pathogenesis, evolution, resolution (exitus). General environmental pathology. Pathology by physical and chemical agents. Biological agents of disease: bacterial exotoxins and endotoxins. Non-hereditary congenital disease. Teratogenesis.
- Genetic disorders: Gene mutation and disease. Genetic inheritance patterns. The major chromosomal and gene disorders. Genetics of multifactorial diseases. Kariotype analysis and methods for genetic diseases. Models of human genetic disorders.
- Molecular Pathology: Molecular pathology of proteins. Hemoglobinopathies. Pathology by enzyme deficiencies. Molecular pathology of the plasma membrane: receptors, channels, transduction mechanisms. Molecular pathology of the components of the connective tissue. Molecular pathology of mitochondria.
- Inflammation: The basics of inflammation, acute and chronic inflammation. Innate immunity and inflammation. Inflammation as a transcriptional program. Inflammatory cells. Chemical mediators of inflammation of cellular and plasma origins. Acute inflammation: the vascular phenomena of inflammation, the mechanisms of formation of exudate, the various types of exudative inflammation. Chronic inflammation: mechanisms of granuloma formation. Foreign-body granulomas. The main immunological granulomas. Systemic manifestations of inflammation: acute phase proteins, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and leukocytosis. Pathophysiology of thermoregulation and fever. Tissue repair and granulation tissue. Pathological aspects of wound healing: keloids, scars.
- Pathology of cell structures: the cell's response to injury: cellular stress, cellular adaptations (hypertrophy, hyperplasia, atrophy, metaplasia), intracellular storage diseases (steatosis, lysosomal diseases). Molecular mechanisms of cellular damage. Cell death: necrosis and apoptosis. Renewal, regeneration and tissue repair. Growth factors. Aging.
- Abnormalities of the extracellular matrix: Beta-fibrillosis. Localized and systemic fibrosis. The diseases of
collagen and other basement membrane components.