At the end of the course and upon passing the exam, the student will have acquired the knowledge and skills on the biochemical and physiological processes specific to prokaryotic cells and will be able to explain in biochemical terms the diversity and lifestyle of the different Bacteria based on structural and nutritional properties and respiratory and fermentative metabolic abilities. The student will acquire specific knowledge related to the biochemical characteristics of microorganisms in the physiological response to stress, in the ability to adapt and communicate between cells. The analytical and learning skills of the students will be exercised through the assignment of original scientific works to be elaborated as oral presentations, useful for the deepening of the experimental methods of genetics and biochemistry used for the study of microbial physiology. The discussion of the presentations of the students in the classroom will allow to deepen the concepts studied in class, improving the communication skills of the students through discussion and interpretation of original experimental data.


1-knowledge of the biosynthetic pathways that lead to the biogenesis of the peculiar components of the prokaryotic cell

Biochemical processes related to biosynthesis of the cell wall, mechanisms for inhibiting the formation of the mureinic cell wall

biogenesis of the membranes

extracellular capsules and polysaccharides

2-knowledge of the factors of diversity and metabolic versatility that characterize prokaryotes and that affect respiratory and fermentative microbial growth and metabolism; 

Chemotrophy: chemiorganotrophic and chemolitotrophic bacteria

-fermentative metabolism

-aerobium and anaerobium respiratory metabolism

-Main biosynthetic pathways and regulation of catabolic and anabolic systems

-Diversity and metabolic versatility of bacteria

3-Mechanism of action and mechanisms of intrinsic and acquired resistance to antibiotics

4-Transport systems and macromolecule secretion systems 

5-Chemotaxis and chemoreceptors

6-Microbial response to stress

7-Use of biochemistry to identify microorganisms